Ridge - Bump On D Head
Cancers that are known collectively as head and neck cancers usually begin in the squamous cells that line the mucosal surfaces of the head and neck (for example, those inside the mouth, throat, and voice box). These cancers are referred to as squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Head and neck cancers can also begin in the salivary glands, sinuses, or muscles or nerves in the head and neck, but these types of cancer are much less common than squamous cell carcinomas (1, 2).
Ridge - Bump on D Head
If a squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is going to spread, it almost always does so locally and/or to the lymph nodes in the neck. Sometimes, cancerous squamous cells can be found in the lymph nodes of the upper neck when there is no evidence of cancer in other parts of the head and neck, possibly because the original primary tumor is too small. When this happens, the cancer is called metastatic squamous cell carcinoma with unknown (occult) primary. More information about this cancer type can be found in the Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary (PDQ) cancer treatment summary.
Paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. Sinuses that are blocked and do not clear; chronic sinus infections that do not respond to treatment with antibiotics; bleeding through the nose; frequent headaches, swelling or other trouble with the eyes; pain in the upper teeth; or problems with dentures.
Researchers estimated that more than 68,000 men and women in the United States would be diagnosed with head and neck cancers in 2021 (31). Most will be diagnosed with mouth, throat, or voice box cancer. Paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer and salivary gland cancer are much less common.
Avoiding oral HPV infection can reduce the risk of HPV-associated head and neck cancers. In June 2020, the Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval of the HPV vaccine Gardasil 9 for the prevention of oropharyngeal and other head and neck cancers caused by HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 in persons aged 9 through 45 years. More information about these vaccines is available in the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines fact sheet.
Patients who receive radiation to the head and neck may experience side effects during and for a short while after treatment, including redness, irritation, and sores in the mouth; a dry mouth or thickened saliva; difficulty in swallowing; changes in taste; or nausea. Radiation may also cause loss of taste, which may decrease appetite and affect nutrition, and earaches (caused by the hardening of ear wax). Patients may also notice some swelling or drooping of the skin under the chin and changes in the texture of the skin. The jaw may feel stiff, and patients may not be able to open their mouth as wide as before treatment.
The goal of treatment for head and neck cancers is to control the disease. But doctors are also concerned about preserving the function of the affected areas as much as they can and helping the patient return to normal activities as soon as possible after treatment. Rehabilitation is a very important part of this process. The goals of rehabilitation depend on the extent of the disease and the treatment that a patient has received.
Eating may be difficult after treatment for head and neck cancer. Some patients receive nutrients directly into a vein after surgery or need a feeding tube until they can eat on their own. A feeding tube is a flexible plastic tube that is passed into the stomach through the nose or an incision in the abdomen. A nurse or speech-language pathologist can help patients learn how to swallow again after surgery.
Regular follow-up care is very important after treatment for head and neck cancer to make sure that the cancer has not returned and that a second primary (new) cancer has not developed. Head and neck cancers not related to HPV infection are especially likely to recur after treatment. Depending on the type of cancer, medical check-ups could include exams of the stoma, if one has been created, and of the mouth, neck, and throat. Regular dental exams may also be necessary.
From time to time, the doctor may perform a complete physical exam, blood tests, x-rays, and computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The doctor may monitor thyroid and pituitary gland function, especially if the head or neck was treated with radiation. Also, the doctor is likely to counsel patients to stop smoking. Research has shown that continued smoking by a patient with head and neck cancer may reduce the effectiveness of treatment and increase the chance of a second primary cancer.
In addition to molding, a bit of swelling or bruising of the scalp immediately following delivery is not uncommon for newborns. The swelling usually is most noticeable at the top back part of the head and is medically referred to as a caput (short for caput succedaneum). When bruising of the head occurs during delivery, the result can be a boggy-feeling area, called a cephalohematoma.
In some cases, the condition does not require treatment. For example, if vitamin A toxicity causes a dent in the head, the person will just need to stop taking an excessive number of vitamin A supplements.
Skull shape varies naturally from person to person. However, a dent in the head may sometimes develop. This dent can have a variety of causes, including trauma, birth injuries, and some types of bone tumor.
If a person is concerned about a dent in their head, they should see a doctor. It is especially important to seek medical attention if additional symptoms are present, such as nausea, confusion, or dizziness.
Your head is made up of many different areas. Each of these areas can be affected by different health conditions. Some of these conditions affect the scalp, while others may be related to nerves or blood vessels in the area.
While the exact pattern of hair loss can differ between men (male pattern baldness) and women (female pattern baldness), androgenic alopecia is associated with thinning of the hair at the crown of the head for both sexes.
These two conditions are related to each other. In fact, dandruff is considered to be a mild form of seborrheic dermatitis. Both can sometimes be localized to one area of the head, such as the crown. However, they often affect multiple areas.
There are several different types of skin cancer. While skin cancer can occur on any area of the body, it often develops in areas that are frequently exposed to the sun, such as the head, neck, and back.
Those with hair loss on the crown of their head may be at an increased risk of skin cancer, as this area can be easily exposed to UV light. In fact, a 2016 cohort study found that male pattern baldness was associated with an increased risk of skin cancer.
The largest fontanel is the anterior fontanel, which is located close to the crown of the head. Sometimes this fontanel may bulge or feel firm to the touch. Conditions that can most commonly cause this include:
Many of these conditions are related to the skin and can include dandruff, sunburn, and psoriasis. Other conditions that can cause symptoms at or around this area are headaches, injuries, or brain tumors.
While some conditions affecting the crown of the head can be treated at home, others require medical attention. If you have symptoms at or around the crown of your head that are concerning, schedule an appointment with a doctor.
Encephaloceles can occur in the base of the skull, the top or back of the skull, or between the forehead and nose. Conditions associated with encephaloceles include hydrocephalus (excess accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain), developmental delays, microcephaly (an abnormally small head), paralysis and seizures.
Hemangiopericytomas are rare tumors that involve the blood vessels. They are most common in the legs, pelvic area, head, neck and brain. Hemangiopericytomas often are painless masses with few or no symptoms.
The top layer of tissue in your vagina is mucous membrane, similar to tissue in your mouth or nose. The bumps and ridges on the surface of your vagina are called rugae, which are like folds or pleats of extra tissue when your vagina is relaxed. During sex or childbirth, rugae enable your vagina to expand.
Fordyce spots, or sebaceous glands, are small white or yellow-white bumps inside your vulva. These spots are also found on the lips and cheeks. They normally first appear during puberty, and you tend to get more of them as you age. Fordyce spots are painless and not harmful.
Varicosities are swollen veins that can occur around your vulva. They happen in about 18 percent of pregnancies or with aging. They appear as bluish raised bumps or round swollen veins around the labia minora and majora. You may not experience pain, but sometimes they can feel heavy, cause itching, or bleed.
Shaving, waxing, or plucking pubic hairs increases your risk for an ingrown pubic hair. That can cause a small, round, sometimes painful or itchy bump to form. The bump may be filled with pus, and the skin around the bump may also become darker.
Many people experience gum pain or irritation at some point. A buildup of plaque and other bacteria is often the culprit of gum pain and irritation. This buildup can also cause bleeding and redness of the gums. But what about a bump on your gums?
A cyst is a small bubble filled with air, liquid, or other soft materials. Dental cysts can form on your gums around your teeth. Most dental cysts form around the roots of dead or buried teeth. They grow slowly over time and rarely cause symptoms unless they become infected. When this happens, you might notice some pain and swelling around the bump.
An abscess on the gums is called a periodontal abscess. Bacterial infections cause these small collections of pus. The abscess may feel like a soft, warm bump. Dental abscesses are often very painful.
Your doctor can perform a gum biopsy. In this procedure, your doctor takes a small tissue sample from the bump and examines it for cancer cells. If the bump is cancerous, your doctor will work with you to come up with a treatment plan. Treatment may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, or a combination of all three. 041b061a72